DNA Viruses

 

Adenovirus 

Adenovirus is a medium size, un-enveloped virus.  It uses strand displacement for replication and has oncogenes, but is not known to cause cancer in humans.

Papillomavirus

Papillomavirus is a small, icosahedral, un-enveloped virus.  It pushes the cell into S-phase, which can give it oncogenic properties.

Example: HPV

Baculovirus

Baculovirus is a large DNA virus that uses the rolling circle mechanism to replicate.  It infects arthropods and baculovirus produced proteins are currently under study for vaccines.

Polyomavirus

Polyomavirus is a small, un-enveloped, icosahedral DNA virus with a circular genome.  It uses bi-directional replication.  LT is its mechanism for temporal control.

Example: SV40

Herpesvirus

Herpesvirus is a large, enveloped DNA virus that uses the rolling circle mechanism.  It uses concatemers to package its genome.  VP22A forms its capsid scaffolding.  Herpesviruses can often go latent.  They down-regulated MHCI and MHCII and can be oncogenic.  The nucleoside analog, acyclovir, targets herpesvirus.

Example: EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus)

Pox

Pox is a large DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm.  It forms three types of infectious particles.  One has a single membrane.  One has three membranes.  One has three membranes and an actin tail.

Example: Vaccinia, Monkey Pox

 

RNA Viruses

 

Reovirus

Reovirus is a small, un-enveloped, dsRNA virus.  Its mRNA is made in multi-layered capsids and then exported into the cytoplasm.  It is capped but has no poly-A tail.  It enters the cell via endocytosis and is oncolytic.

Picornavirus

Picornavirus is a small, un-enveloped, positive sense RNA virus.  It uses a polyprotein and IRES.  2A cleaves EIF4G which shuts down host translation.  Poliovirus has a 1% tropism for neurons, which causes paralysis.

Example: poliovirus

Flavivirus

Flavivirus is a small, enveloped, positive sense RNA virus.  Its entry into the cell is clathrin mediated endocytosis.

Example: West Nile, Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever

Togavirus

Togavirus is a small, enveloped, positive sense RNA virus.  It uses subgenomic promoters for structural mRNAs and uses polyproteins.

Example: Sindbis virus

Retrovirus

Retrovirus is an enveloped, positive sense RNA virus that uses reverse transcriptase.  It integrates into the host genome using reverse transcriptase.  It has the potential to be oncogenic since integration into the genome is random.

Example: HIV, Rous sarcoma.

Coronavirus

Coronavirus is an enveloped, positive sense RNA virus that uses nested mRNAs.

Example: SARS, MERS

Filovirus 

Filovirus is an enveloped, negative sense RNA virus that is classified as a hemorrhagic fever virus that causes non fatal hemorrhage and fatal hypovolemic shock.  It utilizes RNA editing.

Example: Ebolavirus

Rhabdovirus

Rhabdovirus is an enveloped, negative sense RNA virus that uses re-initiation.

Example: Rabies

Bunyavirus

Bunyavirus is an enveloped, negative sense RNA virus that uses cap snatching.  It is classified as a hemorrhagic fever virus.

Example: Sin Nombre virus